India is a country with many living Heritage sites most of which are the places of worship. India has a wealth of culture and heritage strewn in every square inch of its land. Temple construction in India started nearly 2000 years ago. Temples are not only religious centre but also, they are the cultural hubs, promoting and enhancing cultural progress of the region or locality. They also act as the centre of economy.

There are substantial differences in architecture, customs, rituals and traditions between temples from region to region. South Indian region enjoyed peace as compared to North India. Temple tradition flourished continuously in South India even during the rule of Non- Hindu rulers.

Myths and rituals continue to be a part of the lives of people, dictating their daily, weekly and annual calendars of shrines, towns and cities and inspiring major building projects and work of art. The Interaction between sacred space and urban space is a prominent feature of the Hyderabad city. It is difficult to separate the growth of religious architecture from that of towns, both developed in parallel formation. Extensive research by Kevin Leonard and several scholars gets us to know the beauty and Systematic complexity of the temples of the city that can be traced from the nineteenth century.

The patronage of religious architecture flourished with the support of rulers (Successors of Nizam) Itself during the eighteenth and nineteenth century AD. Temple architecture benefited greatly from the patronage of the Nobleman who were anxious to ingratiate themselves with their subjects by Sponsoring the cults of local divines. The Nizam who were the governor of the city, motivated the development of religious institution which were constructed and managed by the nobleman’s, appointed official. The temple sites testify the generous benefactions of Nizam. Temples were expanded on an unprecedented scale due to the sustained sponsorship of royal patrons, their family members, commanders and ministers.

Raja Raghu Ram was one of the outstanding personalities of the era. His ambitious modelling of Kishan Bagh Temple in Kishanbagh, as wel as his addition to other temples in the vicinity, are unmatched in elaboration and splendour. These Temples were self-supporting religious institutions with their own revenues and jagirs opted from the rulers sponsored major building works. The temple is located in the old city area of Hyderabad city. The course of twentieth century witnessed an overall decline in the temple building, reason being the internal clashes among the family. Inspite of the ignorance.



Temple architecture has developed in huge historic period. The temple typology can be found in every city, town and villages. Temples are the evidence of social and cultural activities thus being an important cultural resource for humanity. Faster urbanisation creates a negative impact on old temple fabric of the setttement. Some temples are in the government ownership while other in private ownership.

In Hyderabad, temple architecture flouished in 18-19h Century. Several temples built during this period but not all are known at present and even not protected. They had a major contribution in the past times; thus, it is significant to locate them and conserve them in present time for the future. These have large scale, occupy prominent areas in city and hence can be more vulnerable in the process of development

To provide comprehensive conservation proposal for Sri Murli Manohara Swamy Temple and its
Complex located in Kishan Bagh, Hyderabad.

1. To study the historical, social, cuítural and political context of Hyderabad city.
2. To study the pattern of development of temples within the city
3.To study the temple architecture in 19th C.e. Hyderabad city
4. Frame the comprehensive conservation policies for the identified precinct.
5. To define a heritage management framework for upgradation and conservation of the historic temple.


The scope extends to the community in a holistic approach as the temples govern the community activity of society. To create a development framework for conservation practices without destroying its past. To study the various architectural style which are reflected in the temple site to be taken into
consideration; To study the instances and stories depicted in an aesthetical way over the shikhara of the temple. To provide all the architectural drawings, Specifications which was never done in the past.identifying the pressures and problems that the temple complex face; formulating relevant guidelines and regulations for its conservation and maintenance.


Lack of data and information about Temple and its history regarding maps, and archival documentation works and dependency on secondary sources of data. The temple complex is a public building so it is outside the scope of work regarding the maintenance of work. For documentation purposes all the pla ces are not accessible such as Shikhara, Snake pit and industry area. New changes that may take place due to unforeseen things and changes with client’s peroration. Wherever detailed data on socio-economic and community characteristic have not been available, reasonable assumptions have been made based on observation and interviews with local people.

The methodology has been carried out in three major steps to achieve the stated objectives and thereby define a strategy for conservation for the historic temple- Srl Murli Manohar Swami Ternple.

Firstly, the historical research is done to understand and define the importance of Temple and its existence within the framework of the thesis. The archival research has helped to understand the political bistory of Hyderabad and the Temple tradition of Hyderabad which led to bring out the concept of Temples and how ruling Dynasty and the patrons shaped the distinct Temple architecture within the city in 19″” century. The archival study helped in understanding the history of Hyderabad and social, political, administrative system, cultural system of the city. The study aso inciudes
elements of Temple, evolution, material and construction technology that influenced the distinct architectural style.

Secondly, a site study inciuding detailed documentation and site analysis is undertaken to define the parameters within which the study is done which leads to the generation of potentials, constraints and issues that the site is facing. Detailed documentation includes measurement drawings, photo documentation, interviews, inventories, material mapping, defect mapping and identified the issues of the precinct. Interviews were conducted for the cultural and historical information of the temple complex.

Finally, detailed documentation leads to the final delineation of the precinct. The study presents the analysis of temple complex including Evolution of temple complex, functionality, architectural analysis, cultural analysis, activity pattern, festivals and associated resources with the temple. Also analysing the current issues of the Temple Complex. This led to the identification of case studies. Relevant proposals are formulated in reference to design perspective, policy and management interventions for the conservation of the Temple and thereby prevent from further loss of character.
The conservation programme aims to improve the environment and quality of life along with the enhancement of imageability of the place. This thesis strives to fulfil the required aim through the various interventions and recommendations as subject to the issues pertaining to the site.



A critical review of existing reports and government publications and studies of proposed land use plans by government agencies and considerable documentation exists,


Due to the lack of readily available information which is the major problem encountered and hence primary surveys are done for building up information about the historic built stock. Comprehensive and intensive study and analysis of the existing physical and social fabric was required. The findings form the basis for the definition and nature of the heritage-built structure.


The objective of the socio-economic survey is to obtain specific information about the community living in the precinct of the Temple. The survey will be carried out to discover the perception of community and their awareness of the historicity of the region they reside in, their attitudes to their locality, as well as their willingness to participate in conservation proposals.


The buildings included both monuments and residential architecture of the 18th and 19th Century. Colonial, Late Mughal, and earlier structures were built up a comprehensive information base. the information thus gathered is put down in a way that it can be easily retrieved, stored, and analyzed.


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